Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Moral Courage of Benedict Arnold It is often said that it is easy to find moral courage in various individuals that have been celebrated for their actions throughout history yet it is far harder and a lot more interesting to try to find moral courage in historical figures that have been vilified for their actions and treated as cowards.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Moral Courage of Benedict Arnold specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the history of choices and the way in which they leave an indelible mark by which a person is judged the decision of betrayal made by Benedict Arnold has forever marked him in infamy as a traitor to the American Revolution and the measure by which future traitors are compared to (Evisum, 1). While history has marked him a traitor to America Benedict Arnold was actually a revolutionary hero before he became traitor. His actions at the Battle of Valcour Island, the Battle of Ridgefield and the Battle of Saratoga contr ibuted immensely towards ensuring the survival of the revolution. Unfortunately, despite his successes at the battlefield he was repeatedly passed over for promotion and was accused numerous times by political and military opponents of corruption. Despite these accusations Arnold continued to faithfully serve the early Continental Congress and was actually one of the cornerstones of the revolutionary effort as indicated by various historical records and historians alike. It must be noted that even though he had contributed vast sums to the war effort the early Continental Congress accused him of owing them money (Evisum, 1). From these events it can be seen that initially, Arnold displayed courage, conviction and utter selflessness risking his life numerous times and nearly driving himself to bankruptcy in order to liberate the original 13 colonies from British rule. As a result of all these allegations in spite of his efforts to help win the war Arnold became disenchanted and turne d traitor to the revolution. Under the theory of utilitarianism the moral worth of a perceived action is actually reliant on its resulting outcome. This means that the overall usefulness of a particular action is dependent on the resulting positive utility created and the reduction in negative utility. In the case of Benedict Arnold his contributions helped to ensure the success of the revolution yet the resulting outcome has him betraying his nation due to the maltreatment he suffered under their hands. American historians do agree that if it was not for the actions of Benedict Arnold the American Revolution would not have succeeded. Under the theory of utilitarianism the maximizing utility that was initially created was the contribution of Arnold towards the liberation of America under British rule.Advertising Looking for article on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, his actions could be considere d as being morally courageous in the face of possible negative circumstances. His subsequent betrayal of the American people on the other hand can actually be explained by two concepts namely the theory of egoism and the psychological humanist theory under Maslow. Under the theory of egoism it is expressly stated that people are moral agents that should accomplish actions that are in their own self-interests. In a way the theory assumes that since people are moral agents they will not pursue lines of behavior that will negatively affect the well being of other people but rather enhances ones own well being through self-action. In the case of Benedict Arnold his betrayal of the American Revolution was a direct result of the maltreatment he received at their hands, a facet of information conveniently left out in most historical text known to the general public. As such in order to pursue an action that would be to his own well-being he would choose to leave those who maltreated him an d join those who promised to treat him better. Records do show that after the war was over Benedict Arnold was treated rather well by the British government and as such his pursuit of ethical egoism where the self is put first before others was a success. The humanist theory on the other hand takes a different approach to interpreting the actions of Arnold. According to the humanist theory, human behavior is motivated to achieve the so called Ã¢â¬Å"maximum potentialÃ¢â¬ of the self and as such people will always attempt to reach this maximum potential unless they are hindered by obstacles (Hefner Media Group, 1). The best way of explaining the actions of Arnold would be to use Maslows pyramid of the hierarchy of needs. Maslow suggests that all humans have specific needs which they try to meet which come in a certain hierarchical order. It can be assumed that after the war was over Arnold planned to return to his life as a merchant yet with the accusations hurled against him and his supposed debt to Congress this would not be feasible. Here the obstacles to Arnold meeting his needs under MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s pyramid are the debts he has to congress and the accusations against him (Hefner Media Group, 1). For him to continue to achieve his maximum potential he would need to overcome these obstacles and as a result he chose to betray the revolution and join the British which did result in him gaining enough money to become a merchant again. Care ethics on the other hand does not support the actions of Arnold, while it may be true that he contributed to the war the fact remains that once he betrayed the nation his knowledge of the tactics and stratagems of the various military commanders actually cost several men their lives.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Moral Courage of Benedict Arnold specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The fact is care ethics focuses on the interdependence of individuals and v ulnerability some individuals have over the course of actions of others. It is a theory that helps to determine whether the course of action a person took was right or wrong. In the case of Benedict Arnold, though he may have helped defend the nation early on the fact remains that his actions later on in the course of the war resulted in hundreds of deaths and as such under the theory of care ethics his actions are condemned. The theories of intuition, Divine Command, Kant, and Ross come into play in this particular study when examining the legality, morality and ethicality behind the reasons of particular actions. In the case of Benedict Arnold his actions were in a way illegal and unethical due to the violation in trust that the American public at the time had placed in him. It must be noted though that unethical and immoral types of behavior were first done against him by his opponents in the continental congress before he even tried to betray the American people. His actions, im moral and unethical as they may be, are nothing more than the result of him rebelling against the continued slander and torment that was hurled against him. The most useful theory in identifying the reasoning behind the actions of Arnold would be that of Consequentialism and its judgment that a morally right act would have the consequence of producing a morally right result and vice versa. In the case of Arnold his self sacrifice on the battlefield resulted in numerous victories for the early army of the U.S. It has been clearly stated that if Arnold had not joined the revolution at the time it would have been likely that the original 13 colonies would have lost the war. As such his morally right action produced a good result in the form of America winning the war. Arnolds betrayal could actually be considered the result of consequentialism as well since it was the immoral and unethical actions of the continental congress against Arnold that caused him to betray them in the first pl ace. Though it may be somewhat morbid the best lesson that can be learned from examination of Benedict Arnold is that no matter how strong your ethical conviction is everyone has a tipping point. From being one of the revolutions greatest heroes to becoming one of its most hated villains Arnold initially did try to stay true to his ethical convictions. Unfortunately the utterly contemptible manner in which he was treated despite his efforts resulted in him being disgusted over what the revolution was about resulting in him abandoning their cause.Advertising Looking for article on philosophy? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Evisum. Benedict Arnold. (2000). pg.1. Retrieved from https://www.benedictarnold.org/ Hefner Media Group. Personality Synopsis. Allpsychonline (2004). pg. 1.Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/murray/
Friday, November 22, 2019
The Battle of San Jacinto in the Texas Revolution The Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, Ã¢â¬â¹was the defining battle of the Texas Revolution. Mexican General Santa Anna had unwisely divided his force to mop up those Texans still in rebellion after the Battle of the Alamo and the Goliad Massacre. General Sam Houston, sensing Santa Annas mistake, engaged him on the shores of the San Jacinto River. The battle was a rout, as hundreds of Mexican soldiers were killed or captured. Santa Anna himself was captured and forced to sign a treaty, effectively ending the war. Rebellion in Texas Tensions had long been simmering between rebellious Texans and Mexico. Settlers from the USA had been coming to Texas (then a part of Mexico) for years, with the support of the Mexican government, but a number of factors made them unhappy and open war broke out at the Battle of Gonzales on October 2, 1835. Mexican President/General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched north with a massive army to put down the rebellion. He defeated the Texans at the legendary Battle of the Alamo on March 6, 1836. This was followed by the Goliad Massacre, in which some 350 rebellious Texan prisoners were executed. Santa Anna vs. Sam Houston After the Alamo and Goliad, panicked Texans fled east, fearing for their lives. Santa Anna believed that the Texans were beaten even though General Sam Houston still had an army of almost 900 in the field and more recruits came every day. Santa Anna chased the fleeing Texans, alienating many with his policies of driving off Anglo settlers and destroying their homesteads. Meanwhile, Houston kept one step ahead of Santa Anna. His critics called him a coward, but Houston felt he would only get one shot at defeating the much-larger Mexican army and preferred to pick the time and place for battle. Prelude to Battle In April of 1836, Santa Anna learned that Houston was moving east. He divided his army in three: one part went on a failed attempt to capture the provisional government, another remained to protect his supply lines, and the third, which he commanded himself, went after Houston and his army. When Houston learned what Santa Anna had done, he knew the time was right and turned to meet the Mexicans. Santa Anna set up camp on April 19, 1836, in a marshy area bordered by the San Jacinto River, Buffalo Bayou and a lake. Houston set up camp nearby. ShermanÃ¢â¬â¢s Charge On the afternoon of April 20, as the two armies continued to skirmish and size each other up, Sidney Sherman demanded that Houston send a cavalry charge to attack the Mexicans: Houston thought this foolish. Sherman rounded up about 60 horsemen and charged anyway. The Mexicans did not flinch and before long, the horsemen were trapped, forcing the rest of the Texan army to briefly attack to allow them to escape. This was typical of HoustonÃ¢â¬â¢s command. As most of the men were volunteers, they did not have to take orders from anyone if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to and often did things on their own. The Battle of San Jacinto On the following day, April 21, Santa Anna received some 500 reinforcements under the command of General MartÃ n Perfecto de Cos. When Houston didnÃ¢â¬â¢t attack at first light, Santa Anna assumed he would not attack that day and the Mexicans rested. The troops under Cos were particularly tired. The Texans wanted to fight and several junior officers tried to convince Houston to attack. Houston held a good defensive position and wanted to let Santa Anna attack first, but in the end, he was convinced of the wisdom of an attack. At about 3:30, the Texans began silently marching forward, trying to get as close as possible before opening fire. Total Defeat As soon as the Mexicans realized an attack was coming, Houston ordered the cannons to fire (he had two of them, called the Ã¢â¬Å"twin sistersÃ¢â¬ ) and the cavalry and infantry to charge. The Mexicans were taken completely unawares. Many were asleep and almost none were in defensive position. The angry Texans swarmed into the enemy camp, shouting Ã¢â¬Å"Remember Goliad!Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the Alamo!Ã¢â¬ After about 20 minutes, all organized resistance failed. Panicked Mexicans tried to flee only to find themselves trapped by the river or bayou. Many of Santa AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s best officers fell early and loss of leadership made the rout even worse. The Final Toll The Texans, still enraged over the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad, showed little pity for the Mexicans. Many Mexicans tried to surrender, saying Ã¢â¬Å"me no La BahÃ a (Goliad), me no Alamo,Ã¢â¬ but it was no use. The worst part of the slaughter was at the edges of the Bayou, where fleeing Mexicans found themselves cornered. The final toll for the Texans: nine dead and 30 wounded, including Sam Houston, who had been shot in the ankle. For the Mexicans: about 630 dead, 200 wounded and 730 captured, including Santa Anna himself, who was captured the next day as he tried to flee in civilian clothes. Legacy of the Battle of San Jacinto After the battle, many of the victorious Texans clamored for the execution of General Santa Anna. Houston wisely refrained. He correctly surmised that Santa Anna was worth much more alive than dead. There were still three large Mexican armies in Texas, under Generals Filisola, Urrea and Gaona: any one of them was large enough to potentially defeat Houston and his men. Houston and his officers spoke with Santa Anna for hours before deciding on a course of action. Santa Anna dictated orders to his generals: they were to leave Texas at once. He also signed documents recognizing the independence of Texas and ending the war. Somewhat amazingly, Santa Annas generals did as they were told and retreated out of Texas with their armies. Santa Anna somehow evaded execution and eventually made his way back to Mexico, where he would later resume the Presidency, go back on his word, and try more than once to re-take Texas. But every effort was doomed to failure. Texas was gone, soon to be followed by California, New Mexico, and much more Mexican territory. History lends events such as the independence of Texas a certain feeling of inevitabilityÃ as if it was always the destiny of Texas to become first independent and then a state in the USA. The reality was different. The Texans had just suffered two huge losses at the Alamo and Goliad and were on the run. Had Santa Anna not split his forces, Houstons army may well have been beaten by the Mexicans superior numbers. In addition, Santa Annas generals had the strength to defeat the Texans: had Santa Anna been executed, they likely would have kept fighting. In either case, history would be much different today. As it was, the Mexicans crushing defeat at the Battle of San Jacinto proved decisive for Texas. The Mexican army retreated, effectively ending the only realistic chance they ever had of re-taking Texas. Mexico would futilely try for years to reclaim Texas, only finally relinquishing any claim to it after the Mexican-American War. San Jacinto was Houstons finest hour. The glorious victory silenced his critics and gave him the invincible air of a war hero, which served him in good stead during his subsequent political career. His decisions were consistently proven wise. His reluctance to attack Santa Annas unified force and his refusal to let the captured dictator be executed are two good examples. For the Mexicans, San Jacinto was the start of a long national nightmare that would end with the loss of not only TexasÃ but also California, New Mexico, and much more. It was a humiliating defeat and for years. Mexican politicians made great plans to get Texas back, but deep down they knew it was gone. Santa Anna was disgracedÃ but would make yet another comeback in Mexican politics during the Pastry War against France in 1838-1839. Today, there is a monument at the San Jacinto battlefield, not far from the city of Houston. Resources and Further Reading Brands, H.W. Lone Star Nation: the Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence. New York: Anchor Books, 2004.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
A Positive Concept - Essay Example It should be known that truth is immortal and man without truth is nothing but life less. Life is not meant to be lived just for the sake of pleasure of senses, but for the purpose of realizing truth and living by it in all means. One of the greatest philosophers who strived for truth and righteousness was Socrates, the famous Greek thinker. Ã¢â¬Å"Socrates' main focus throughout his public teaching life was the acquiring by the individual of self-knowledge. He believes that goodness and truth, positive essences and pure ethical and moralÃ¢â¬ (Burgess,2011) . This indeed explains us the value of truthful living and the way in which it helps a person to attain bliss and immortality. However, living a truth life is not simple and comfortable as one has to come across many difficulties and hurdles in the process. Only a person who has attained the knowledge about self has the motivation and passion to walk the journey of life with truth. A person has the freedom to live life at his o wn will, but wisdom and knowledge prompt him to discard immoral life and return to virtuous and happy life. Ã¢â¬Å"We all tend to intellectualize the road of a virtuous life , when all we need to do is believe in a few simple natural laws , formulated thousand of years ago by interacted with GodÃ¢â¬ (Joubert,2009,pg.1).It is not very difficult to follow the path of truth if you realize the law of nature. Nature being the mother of all beings, has bestowed us with all bounties to achieve happiness and bliss. Fortunately, every human being knows that happiness is the element that he is seeking and desiring in every phase of his life. As Per ( Babuta, 2010)Ã¢â¬Å"Some people may be created happier than others, with enjoyment of life programmed into their hardwiring. For others, getting to happiness isn't always that simple. You weren't programmed that wayÃ¢â¬ . It may be a surprising fact, that the truth and happiness are the two things that go hand Ã¢â¬â in Ã¢â¬â hand and o ne who is leading an immoral life can never be happy in true sense. To be moral and truthful to oneself is the biggest achievement of life and every person should work and strive to achieve this purpose. Ã¢â¬Å"A moral skeptic might be the sort of person who says Ã¢â¬Å"All this talk of morality is tripeÃ¢â¬ who will reject morality and take no notice of it all. Such a person in a way is rejecting all moral judgments and truth whollyÃ¢â¬ (Mc cord,1988,pg.96) Most people think that morality and truthfulness can be attained solely from religion. However, religion is a basis and foundation for finding truth but only self realization and truth of divine can persuade someone to persuade a truthful living. Ã¢â¬Å"Once the ultimate metaphysical or religious position is takes as truth, morality or truthful living becomes impossible without religion, and religion become impossible without realityÃ¢â¬ (Chacko, 1986,pg.9).The truth is the reality and one has to go on a long quest to un derstand and establish truth in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. By truth it is meant that, a person will achieve bliss and happiness eternally and not only in his present life. However, to achieve blissful life the most important think is to understand divine and love all the creations of the Almighty with true heart. The most important aspect of truth is love, this feeling and emotion is what makes the foundation of universe. The Almighty has
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
CONTEMPORARY CASES IN PUBLIC POLICY - Essay Example The assumption is based on the argument that all industrially developed countries largely depend on immigrants to meet their workforce needs. However, many people argue that growing immigrant population has been stealing a notable percent of AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs and this situation would adversely affect the overall economic development of the country in the long run unless the immigration policy is well revised. Considering all changes in the economic profile of the country and the challenges facing the conservative business models, innovative thoughts in this regards are of prime importance now. Policy change efforts in this regard should focus on illegal immigration also as one of the most potential issues today in the American political economy. The Problem & Evidences Immigration policy has been a bone of contention in the U.S political economy for decades. However, policy makers tend to converge at the point that in order to curb illegal immigration and to ensure border securi ty, top foreign talent has to be invited to the country. The recent developments in policy formulations indicate that visa application process have been made more technical to address undocumented immigrants. Some statistics will reveal the intensity of illegal immigration as a potential issue. ... According to the report of FAIR (2005), every year 730,000 American workers get replaced by illegal immigrants, and this causes a loss of $ 4.3 billion a year. All these indicate the need for some policy reforms. As a recent development, an enforcement-heavy approach and Secure Communities Programs have been initiated under the Obama administration. As part of the enforcement approach, the U.S has increased the number of Border Patrol Agents more than ever before. The Secure Communities Program entitles local authorities to collect and share fingerprints and other sensitive information with the Immigration Customs and Enforcement (ICE) agency to check the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ criminal records and status to seek possibility for expulsion. Admittedly, many of such reforms have evoked wider criticism from all sides. In addition, many are against the social services offered to the illegal immigrants on the basis of amnesty. The first and foremost problem according to them is that offering social services will attract more and more illegal immigrants into the nation thus weakening the already collapsed American employment sector. According to one study, the benefits enjoyed by illegal immigrants from the federal government far outweigh their contributions to the society; and the contribution from the illegal immigrants comes mainly in the form of payroll taxes, which is about $ 7 billion in a year (Camarota 2004). However, it is found that the benefits enjoyed by the illegal immigrants in the form of Ã¢â¬Å"Medicaid use, treatment for the uninsured, and participation in food assistance programsÃ¢â¬ amount to about 17.4 billion dollars (Ibid). However, opponents argue that these immigrants often do works for lower wages, and a considerable proportion is
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Coffee and Starbucks Corporation Essay Acknowledgements: First and foremost, we would like to express our gratitude to our faculty Ms. Nusrat Huq for her constant support and motivation, and we would also like to thank her for assigning a topic to our group that has been quite interesting to work with. We are immensely grateful to our friends and AIUB alumni who have been kind enough to share their knowledge with us. Last but not the least, our sincere gratitude goes to our respected families for their guidance and contribution in all aspects of our lives. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Among many other global coffee shops, Starbucks is the most popular. This article discusses the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal and external environments, its corporate strategies, organization structures, how they can improve their quality, and where there is room for success.In 1971, three young entrepreneurs began the Starbucks Corporation in Seattle Washington. Their key goal was to sell whole coffee beans. Soon after, Starbucks began experiencing huge growth, opening five stores all of which had roasting facilities, sold coffee beans and room for local restaurants. In 1987, Howard Schultz bought Starbucks from its original owners for $4 million after expanding Starbucks by opening three coffee bars. These coffee bars were based on an idea that was originally proposed to the owner who recruited him into the corporation as manager of retail and marketing. Overall, Schultz strategy for Starbucks was to grow slow. Starbucks went on to suffer financial losses and overhead operating expenses rose as Starbucks continued its slow expansion process. Despite the initial financial troubles, Starbucks went on to expand to 870 stores by 1996. Sales increased 84%, which brought the corporation out of debt. With the growing success, Starbucks planned to open 2000 stores by year 2000.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The Devil's Shadow Time Setting: The Devil's Shadow by Clifford Lindsey Alderman took place in the late seventeenth century from 1692-1693. This is the time period that the Salem Witch Trials took place. The main plot of the story rested on the events leading up to the Salem Witch Trials, the trials themselves, and the aftermath of the trials. Detailed accounts of witch executions, the actual trials, and the events that caused the trials were discussed in the story. Place Setting: Most of the action in this story took place in Salem, Massachusetts. This was the birthplace of the witchcraft hysteria and it was also the actual site of the Salem Witch Trials. The town of Salem, Massachusetts in the late seventeenth century was a small puritan community that was largely uneducated and very superstitious. Since many lacked education, they did not understand many events that happened in their daily lives. Many things that went wrong in their daily lives would be blamed on witchcraft or sorcery. Such common things as burnt bread or broken plates would be blamed on the supernatural. Many people, especially the uneducated, firmly believed in the existence of witches and warlocks. They believed that such individuals had the power to perform "black magic" that caused some kind of trouble. Every time something bad happened they would blame it on witches and witchcraft. Main Characters: One of the main characters in this story was Tituba, an African slave woman from Barbados. She was purchased in Barbados by a merchant named Samuel Parris. She lived in Barbados until Samuel Parris brought her to Salem to work as his servant. She was known to practice Obeah, an African cult sorcery. People who performed or practiced Obeah were said to be able to predict the future, make magical charms, and drive away evil spirits. Tituba was accused of teaching witchcraft to a small group of girls in Salem. Samuel Parris, another main character in this story, was a merchant who attended Harvard University. He was the owner of Tituba and her husband. He had studied to become a minister before he left Harvard. He was a business man who traded slaves, sugar, and rum in Barbados. Things began to not work out for him when he started making less and less money. He gave up his career as a merchant in 1689 and moved to Salem to become a minister. Other main characters in this story include the girls that were taught witchcraft by Tituba, the judges in the courtroom, and the men and women who were accused of witchcraft.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Hildegard was born in 1098 to a noble German family at Bermersheim, south of Mainz. According to HildegardÃ¢â¬â¢s biography, her parents offered her as the youngest often children to God as a tithe. Hildegard of Bingen was born in 1098 on her parentÃ¢â¬â¢s estate near Alzey in Rhenish Hesse. She was the tenth and last child of the noble couple Hildebert and Mechtild of Bermersheim. Seven of her brothers and sisters are known by name. In 1106, when she was eight years old, her parents consecrated her to God, entrusting her to Jutta of Spanheim, who was living as a hermit at the Benedictine monastery at Disibodenbeg. The monk Volmar, who became HildegardÃ¢â¬â¢s personal friend and amanuensis, saw to her later education. Between 1112 and 1115, Hildegard professed her vows as a Benedictine nun. Ã¢â¬Å"As JuttaÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual flume grew, a religious community for women led by the recluse was established; upon JuttaÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1136, Hildegard was elected head of the communityÃ¢â¬ . In 1141, at the age of forty-two years and seven months, Hildegard heard a voice from heaven that directed her to record the visions she had experienced since early childhood. At first reluctant, Hildegard finally acquiesced to the bidding of the Living Light . Ã¢â¬Å"As her writings became well known, Hildegard developed a reputation as a prophetess and healer. However, her prophetic ability did not manifest itself in predictions of the future but rather in an understanding and interpretation of contemporary eventsÃ¢â¬ . Five years later, in 1141, through an especially brilliant vision, she received the divine command to write down her visions. Just as on previous occasions. she resisted, became ill, and recovered only when she began to record her visions. Her hesitation was rooted in her strong critical views of charlatans. Pope Eugenius III. aware of the written account and on the recommendation of Bernard of Claivaux, read the first part of her Scivias before the Synod of Trier (1147Ã¢â¬â49). At the same time, he sent a papal commission to Disibodenberg to study the authenticity of HildegardÃ¢â¬â¢s visions. When he became certain of her genuineness, the Pope gave the ChurchÃ¢â¬â¢s approval in a letter and encouraged Hildegard to continue her writing. In addition to her spiritual duties, Hildegard was engaged in the secular events of her day. She corresponded with temporal and religious Ieaders, providing advice and urging reform. Although Frederick I Barbarossa had invited her to his imperial palace at Ingeiheim, Hildegard later admonished the emperor because of his support of three anti-popes. Nonetheless, she obtained letters of protection from Frederick that saved the Rupertsberg community when fighting broke out between imperial troops and those loyal to the Pope. Hildegard undertook three preaching tours between 1158 and 1163 and a final one in 1170Ã¢â¬â1171; her travels took her to cathedral cries and monastic communities along the Upper and Lower Rhine as well as to more distant venues like Wikrzburg and Bamberg. The purpose of the tours was to promote monastic and clerical reform and to combat heretical sects, in particular the Cathars. As the Benedictine abbessÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation grew, the Rupertsberg communitv flourished. With the increased number of residents, a second community to accommodate young women of a less noble background was established in 1165 across the Rhine River near Eibingen. Because Hildegard intervened to bury a man who purportedly had died excommunicated, the Eibingen and Ruperrsberg communities were placed under interdict in 1178, unable to hear Mass, receive the Eucharist, or sing the Divine Office. The matter was resolved and the interdict lifted just six months before the abbessÃ¢â¬â¢s death on September 17, 1179 . From 1112 to 1182, Hildegard went through a life of nunnery and composers. At first, her piece has been directed towards the religious angles of Benedictines, mainly sung, and utilized in churches to which she had served. However, by 1182, the trigger of her success in the field of music has soared massively through her several compositions that proved of value. The fame of her scores had eventually reached and influence the current time; however, questions lie, such as how did her fame started? How and what are the influences provided by her compositions? Lastly, how was this look upon during her times as well as the present musical field?
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Everything and everyone has a history. Things and materials do not just appear on this earth. They all have beginning. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very interesting to see where things got started. How we came to evolve to the way we are today. Everything is so interesting, but the thing that has caught my attention more is The Code of Hammurabi. According to Judith Levin, The Code of Hammurabi was discovered in the winter of 1902 and 1903 while digging up the site of ancient city of Susa, present day Iran. They found three large shiny pieces of shiny black stone that formed a monument almost seven and a half feet tall (13). The writing was in the script of cuneiform. In essence The Code of Hammurabi was the first set of laws ever established. It was an Ã¢â¬Ëeye for an eye, tooth for a toothÃ¢â¬â¢ kind of laws. You killed someoneÃ¢â¬ ¦someone will kill you. Hammurabi was king of Babylon about 4,000 years ago. Babylon was the land between the rivers, the rivers being Tigris and the Euphrates. He proclaimed that he was Ã¢â¬Å"Hammurabi, King of Justice. Ã¢â¬ That he protected the weak Ã¢â¬â poor people, widows, orphans- from the powerful (Levin). I chose to compare some of the law codes in HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Codes and some amendments from the United States Constitution. The Code of Hammurabi was believed to be written 1727 BCE (Constitutuion. org). The United States Constitution was ratified 1788. The Code of Hammurabi being one of the first written laws and regulations to the laws and regulations we live by today. I found interesting because knowing where we first started shows how much the human race has changed. When it comes to the characteristics the United States Constitution and HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Code have in common both, obviously, are sets of laws. This means that they both have decrees that must be followed. Also, the purpose of both of these laws is to protect and bring justice to the people to whom the rules shall apply. Some basic differences are the severity of rules and punishments. The Code of Hammurabi is kind of extreme. The Code of Hammurabi was a primitive and cruel justice system that relied on fear to keep the populace in line. Hammurabi claimed he was sent by a god to rule, so therefore, no one would question his authority. Religion alone was not enough to keep the people in line, so Hammurabi created a code of laws that would scare the people into obedience. Breaking the laws resulted in an inhumane or exaggerated punishment. Common human error was treated as a crime, and could have severe consequences. The people lived in constant fear of the law. The justice system claimed to have an Ã¢â¬Å"eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ mentality, but it often seemed that it was a life for an eye. Killing a man for committing robbery is extreme; he could just be picking a pocket, rather than robbing a bank. Cutting of an offender's hand was a common punishment for small crimes. If a son strikes his father, his hand shall be cut off. This is done regardless of the circumstances, considering the father could be beating the son. Amputating a hand often led to death, for there was no medicine to stop the bleeding. The court attempted to keep people from bearing false witness, by giving severe penalties. If a man cannot prove that the man he is accusing of murder is guilty, he shall be put to death. While this might deter citizens from making false accusations, it might cause an innocent man to be put to death because he could not find evidence. If someone were to bear false witness concerning grain or money, he shall put death. A little extreme, considering it could be concerning pocket change. Sentences like this would cause the people to be afraid to stand up for their rights in court. Severe penalties were often inflicted in cases of common human error. If a physician were to cause a man's death while operating, he would lose his hand. Physicians who try to do well are punished for making mistakes. Once they lose their hand, they cannot operate again. A bit harsh in my opinion. On the other hand, the United States Constitution isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as extreme. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not perfect, but nothing really. There is always going to be flaws. The United States Constitution covers all the almost all the laws as the code of Hammurabi, but not so extreme. With the Law of Hammurabi, only one person could decide the personÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. With the Constitution, we the people have the right to have someone defend us in court. We have the right to be tried by a grand jury versus the judge himself/herself. We have many more options to protect ourselves. We have rights that follow us all through the process. For example, once we get arrested we have our Miranda rights; we have a time limit as to how long they can keep us under custody. For example, once arrested, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see a judge with a certain amount of hours they have to let us go. With the code of Hammurabi, you stood trial. If one person and one person only believed you were guilty, then not even God would save you. If the judge couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t determine who was the guilty and who the innocent was, you had to do some extreme things that were totally uncalled for. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"if any one bring an accusation against a man, and the accused go to the river and leap into the river, if he sink in the river his accuser shall take possession of his house. But if the river prove that the accused is not guilty, and he escape unhurt, then he who had brought the accusation shall be put to death, while he who leaped into the river shall take possession of the house that had belonged to his accuser (King). Something interesting about both of them is their regulations for people who tell lies against other people. Under HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s rule if someone came forward to accuse someone else of a crime, they better have the means of evidence to back it up or there would be consequences. For example, if I came forward and accused Ben of stealing, if I canÃ¢â¬â¢t prove Ben was stealing then my punishment for lying would be the punishment Ben would have gotten if he really was stealing. Under the Code of Hammurabi this is getting my hand cute off (Legal History and Philosophy). So people were pretty spectical about coming forward and accusing people with crimes if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have rock hard evidence. Under the United States Constitution, there is a charge and penatly for lying or give the police unreliable information and it conflicts with an investigation. If it might give us a misdemeanor but nothing major like cutting off someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s hand. HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s Code was stricter and less tolerant. The United states Constitution is strict but it has its parameters. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just go off on a killing spree for everyone crime in the book. The Code of Hammurabi, most of the consequences for the crimes is death. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of harsh. Everyone under HammurabiÃ¢â¬â¢s reign became model citizens, expert liars, or were extinct with the rest of the population he was killing. People were afraid to do anything. He called himself the defender of middle class and the poor but in reality he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t protect them. He fined the rich because they had the money to pay, if they got caught up in a crime all they had to to do was pay. When the poor got involved with crimes they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have money to pay up so they were punished with other meansÃ¢â¬ ¦like cutting of f a hand, being put to death, etc. It is good that someone did establish laws starting with Ã¢â¬Å"if. Ã¢â¬ Instead of having something is just illegal or Ã¢â¬Å"thou shall notÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ The Hammurabi CodeÃ¢â¬â¢s were actually set realistically. The punishments might have not been but they started off good. Ã¢â¬Å"If this crime is committed, then this is the punishment. They were realistic that even if they declared something illegal someone was still going to break the law. The United States Constitution, was built over many years and many people. They just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write one thing down and leave it like that. They got accustomed to the changes of the world. Rules and regulations were later added to adjust to the ch anging world. In Conclusion, The Code of Hammurabi is what got the law started in a way. But the United States Constitution is how far along it was come. Everything needs a start. Hammurabi was the startÃ¢â¬ ¦. things evolve and change with time. We all adapt.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The 11 Worst Blizzards in U.S. History It seems that every time a big snowstorm is in the forecast, the media hails it as record breaking or historic, in some way or another. But how do these storms truly match up to the worst storms to hit the United States? Take a look at some of the worst blizzards to ever hit U.S. soil. 11. The Chicago Blizzard of 1967 This storm dumped 23 inches of snow on northeast Illinois and northwest Indiana. The storm (which hit on January 26) wreaked havoc across metropolitan Chicago, leavingÃ 800 Chicago Transit Authority buses and 50,000 automobiles abandoned all around the city. 10. The Great Blizzard of 1899 This devastating snowstorm was notable for the amount of snow it produced- around 20 to 35 inches- as well as where it hit the hardest, i.e. Florida, Louisiana, and Washington D.C. These southern regions are not normally accustomed to such large amount of snow and were thus even more overwhelmed by the snowy conditions.Ã 9. The Great Storm of 1975 Not only did this intense storm drop two feet of snow over the Midwest over four days in January 1975, but it also created 45 tornadoes. The snow and the tornadoes were responsible for the deaths of more than 60 people and property damage topping $63 million. 8. The Knickerbocker Storm Over two days in late January 1922, nearly three feet of snow fell across Maryland, Virginia, Washington D.C., and Pennsylvania. But it wasnt just the amount of snow that fell- it was the weight of the snow. It was a particularly heavy, wet snow that collapsed houses and roofs, including the roof of the Knickerbocker Theater, a popular venue in Washington D.C., which killed 98 people and injured 133. 7. The Armistice Day Blizzard On November 11, 1940- what was then called Armistice Day- a strong snowstorm combined with fierce winds to create 20-foot snowdrifts across the Midwest. This storm was responsible for the deaths of 145 people and thousands of livestock. 6. The Blizzard of 1996 More than 150 people died during this storm that hit the east coast of the U.S. from January 6 to 8 of 1996. The blizzard, and subsequent flooding, also caused $4.5 billion in property damages. 5. The Childrens Blizzard This tragic storm occurred on January 12, 1888. While it packed only several inches of snow, this storm was most notable for the sudden and unexpected temperature drop that accompanied it. On what started as a warm day (by Dakota territory and Nebraska standards) of several degrees above freezing, temperatures instantly plummeted to a wind chill of minus 40.Ã Children, who were sent home by the teachers because of the snow, were unprepared for the sudden cold. Two hundred thirty-five kids died that day trying to get home from school. 4. The White Hurricane This blizzard- most notable for its hurricane force winds- is still the deadliest natural disaster to ever hit the Great Lakes region of the U.S. The storm hit on November 7, 1913, causing 250 deaths and packed winds sustained at over 60 miles per hour for almost twelve hours 3. The Storm of the Century On March 12, 1993- a storm that was both a blizzard and a cyclone wreaked havoc from Canada to Cuba. Labeled the Storm of the Century, this snowstorm causedÃ 318 deaths and $6.6 billion in damage. But thanks to a successful five-day warning from the National Weather Service, many lives were saved thanks to the preparations that some states were able to put into place prior to the storm. 2. The Great Appalachian Storm On November 24, 1950, a storm rolled over the Carolinas on its way to Ohio that brought with it heavy rains, winds, and snow. The storm brought as much as 57 inches of snow and was responsible for 353 deaths and became a case study later used to track and predict weather. 1. The Great Blizzard of 1888 This storm, which brought 40 to 50 inches of snow toÃ Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York took the lives of more than 400 people throughout the northeast. This is the highest death toll ever recorded for a winter storm in the U.S. The Great Blizzard buried houses, cars, and trains and was responsible for the sinking of 200 ships due to its fierce winds.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Richter Surname Meaning and Family History The Richter surname means one who wasÃ Lords administrator of a village,Ã an occupational surname derivedÃ from the Middle High German rihtÃ ¦re, meaning judge, in turnÃ derived from the Middle High German rihten, meaning to make right. This term was frequently used in eastern Germany, where the surname is still most common today, to indicate the head of a village, often a hereditary position.Ã RICHTERÃ is the 14th most common German surname. Surname Origin:Ã German, Czech Alternate Surname Spellings:Ã RYCHTR, RYCHTAR, RECTOR Famous People with the Surname Richter Charles Francis Richter -Ã American seismologist and physicist; inventor of the Richter magnitude scaleAdrian Ludwig Richter - German artistAugust Gottlieb RichterÃ - German surgeonBurton Richter - Nobel Prize-winning American physicistFranz Xaver Richter - Czech composerJeremias Benjamin RichterÃ - German chemist; developer of stoichiometry theoryJohan RichterÃ -Ã Norwegian-SwedishÃ engineer and industrialistGerhard Richter - German painter Where the RichterÃ Surname Is Most Common The Richter surname today is most prevalent in Germany, accordingÃ to surname distribution fromÃ Forebears, where it ranks as the 12thÃ most common surname in the country. It is also fairly common in Austria, where it ranks 63rd. According toÃ WorldNames PublicProfiler, Richter is extremely common in northeastern Germany, especially in Sachsen, but also in Brandenburg, Sachsen-Anhalt and Berlin.Ã Data from Verwandt.de agrees, indicating that the largest number of people with the Richter surname in Germany live inÃ Berlin, followed by Dresden, Leipzig, Hamburg, Munich, Chemnitz, Region Hannover, Elbe-Eister, Schsische SchweizÃ and Freiberg. Genealogy Resources for the Surname RICHTER German Surnames - Meanings and Origins: Uncover the meaning of your German last name with this guide to the origins of German surnames and the meanings of the top 50 most commonÃ German surnames.How to Research German Ancestry: Learn how to trace your German roots back to the old country step by step, from locating your ancestors German hometown to accessing records in Germany.RichterÃ Family Crest - Its Not What You Think: Contrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a RichterÃ family crest or coat of arms for the Richter surname.Ã Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male-line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.RichterÃ Family Genealogy Forum: Search this popular genealogy forum for the RichterÃ surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Richter query.FamilySearch - RICHTERÃ Genealogy: Explore over 11Ã milli on results from digitizedÃ historical records and lineage-linked family trees related to the Richter surname on this free website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. RICHTERÃ Surname Family Mailing Lists: RootsWeb hosts several free mailing lists for researchers of the RichterÃ surname.DistantCousin.com - RICHTERÃ Genealogy Family History: Explore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Richter.GeneaNet - RichterÃ Records: GeneaNet includes archival records, family trees, and other resources for individuals with the RichterÃ surname, with a concentration on records and families from France and other European countries.The RichterÃ Genealogy and Family Tree Page: Browse genealogy records and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the RichterÃ surname from the website of Genealogy Today.- References Cottle, Basil.Ã Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.Dorward, David.Ã Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998.Fucilla, Joseph.Ã Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003.Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.Ã A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989.Hanks, Patrick.Ã Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003.Reaney, P.H.Ã A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997.Smith, Elsdon C.Ã American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997
Sunday, November 3, 2019